Robot technology was first used in the industrial field, but with the development of robot technology and the improvement of the needs of various industries, and driven by the development of computer technology, network technology, MEMS technology and other new technologies, in recent years, robot technology is rapidly expanding from the traditional industrial manufacturing field to the fields of medical service, education and entertainment, exploration and survey, bioengineering, disaster relief and rescue Robot systems with different requirements in different fields have been deeply researched and developed.
In a broad sense, robots include all the machines that simulate human behavior or thought and other creatures, such as robot dogs, robot cats, etc. At present, intelligent robot has become one of the research hotspots in the world and an important symbol to measure the industrialization level of a country.
It can be said that in the past few decades, the research and application of robot technology has greatly promoted the process of industrialization and modernization of human beings, and gradually formed the industrial chain of robots, so that the application scope of robots has become more and more extensive. With the emergence of robots in industrial production, the technology research related to robots is also in-depth. In this development process, sensor technology is inseparable.
In 1961, the Lincoln Laboratory of Massachusetts Institute of technology linked the driven part of a remote control manipulator equipped with a contact sensor with a computer, so that the robot can determine the state of an object by its touch. Subsequently, the research work of computer image processing and object identification using TV camera as input has also made achievements. In 1968, J. McCarthy and others of Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory studied a new project, the development of computer system with hands, eyes and ears. As a result, the research image of intelligent robot is becoming more and more abundant.
Since the 1970s, the robot industry has been booming, and robot technology has developed into a specialized discipline. Firstly, industrial robots began to be widely used in the assembly line production of automobile manufacturing industry. Then, developed manufacturing countries such as Japan, Germany and the United States began to use robots in other industrial production.
Later, robots are developing towards more and more intelligent. In the same way, this kind of robot has many kinds of sensors, which can fuse the information monitored by various sensors, so as to adapt to the changing environment effectively. It has strong adaptive ability, learning ability and autonomous function.
The development of intelligent robot has gone through three stages: programmable trial teaching robot, reappearance robot, robot with perception ability and adaptive ability, intelligent robot. The key technologies involved include multi-sensor information fusion, navigation and positioning, path planning, robot vision intelligent control and man-machine interface technology.
In the 21st century, with the continuous improvement of labor cost and technology, many countries have carried out the transformation and upgrading of manufacturing industry, and there has been an upsurge of robot replacing human. At the same time, with the rapid development of artificial intelligence, service robots also begin to enter the life of ordinary families.