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  • 传感器在机器人技术研究发展历程中如影随行
  • 本站编辑:杭州华准电子有限公司发布日期:2020-10-16 15:29 浏览次数:

机器人技术最早用于工业领域,但随着机器人技术的发展和各行业需求的提升,在计算机技术、网络技术、MEMS技术等新技术发展的推动下,近年来,机器人技术正从传统的工业制造领域向医疗服务、教育娱乐、勘探勘测、生物工程、救灾救援等领域迅速扩展,适应不同领域需求的机器人系统被深入研究和开发。

Robot technology was first used in the industrial field, but with the development of robot technology and the improvement of the needs of various industries, and driven by the development of computer technology, network technology, MEMS technology and other new technologies, in recent years, robot technology is rapidly expanding from the traditional industrial manufacturing field to the fields of medical service, education and entertainment, exploration and survey, bioengineering, disaster relief and rescue Robot systems with different requirements in different fields have been deeply researched and developed.

广义上,机器人包括一切模拟人类行为或思想以及模拟其他生物的机械,如机器狗、机器猫等。目前,智能机器人已成为世界各国的研究热点之一,成为衡量一国工业化水平的重要标志。

In a broad sense, robots include all the machines that simulate human behavior or thought and other creatures, such as robot dogs, robot cats, etc. At present, intelligent robot has become one of the research hotspots in the world and an important symbol to measure the industrialization level of a country.

可以说,过去几十年,机器人技术的研究与应用,大大推动了人类的工业化和现代化进程,并逐步形成了机器人的产业链,使机器人的应用范围也日趋广泛。在机器人崭露头角于工业生产的同时,与机器人相关的技术研究,也在不断深入。在这一发展历程中,传感器技术如影随行,密不可分。

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It can be said that in the past few decades, the research and application of robot technology has greatly promoted the process of industrialization and modernization of human beings, and gradually formed the industrial chain of robots, so that the application scope of robots has become more and more extensive. With the emergence of robots in industrial production, the technology research related to robots is also in-depth. In this development process, sensor technology is inseparable.

1961年,美国麻省理工学院Lincoln实验室把一个配有接触传感器的遥控操纵器的从动部分与一台计算机联结在一起,这样形成的机器人可以凭触觉决定物体的状态。随后,用电视摄像头作为输入的计算机图像处理、物体辨识的研究工作也陆续取得成果。1968年,美国斯坦福人工智能实验室的J.McCarthy等人研究了新颖的课题——研制带有手、眼、耳的计算机系统。于是,智能机器人的研究形象逐渐丰满起来。

In 1961, the Lincoln Laboratory of Massachusetts Institute of technology linked the driven part of a remote control manipulator equipped with a contact sensor with a computer, so that the robot can determine the state of an object by its touch. Subsequently, the research work of computer image processing and object identification using TV camera as input has also made achievements. In 1968, J. McCarthy and others of Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory studied a new project, the development of computer system with hands, eyes and ears. As a result, the research image of intelligent robot is becoming more and more abundant.

20世纪70年代以来,机器人产业蓬勃兴起,机器人技术发展为专门的学科。工业机器人首先在汽车制造业的流水线生产中开始大规模应用,随后,诸如日本、德国、美国这样的制造业发达国家开始在其他工业生产中也大量采用机器人作业。

Since the 1970s, the robot industry has been booming, and robot technology has developed into a specialized discipline. Firstly, industrial robots began to be widely used in the assembly line production of automobile manufacturing industry. Then, developed manufacturing countries such as Japan, Germany and the United States began to use robots in other industrial production.

后来,机器人朝着越来越智能化的方向发展。同样的,这种机器人带有多种传感器,能够将多种传感器监测得到的信息进行融合,从而有效地适应变化的环境,具有很强的自适应能力、学习能力和自治功能。

Later, robots are developing towards more and more intelligent. In the same way, this kind of robot has many kinds of sensors, which can fuse the information monitored by various sensors, so as to adapt to the changing environment effectively. It has strong adaptive ability, learning ability and autonomous function.

智能机器人的发展主要经历了三个阶段,分别是可编程试教、再现型机器人,有感知能力和自适应能力的机器人,智能机器人。其中所涉及到的关键技术有多传感器信息融合、导航与定位、路径规划、机器人视觉智能控制和人机接口技术等。

The development of intelligent robot has gone through three stages: programmable trial teaching robot, reappearance robot, robot with perception ability and adaptive ability, intelligent robot. The key technologies involved include multi-sensor information fusion, navigation and positioning, path planning, robot vision intelligent control and man-machine interface technology.

进入21世纪,随着劳动力成本的不断提高、技术的不断进步,各国陆续进行制造业的转型与升级,出现了机器人替代人的热潮。同时,人工智能发展日新月异,服务机器人也开始走进普通家庭的生活。

In the 21st century, with the continuous improvement of labor cost and technology, many countries have carried out the transformation and upgrading of manufacturing industry, and there has been an upsurge of robot replacing human. At the same time, with the rapid development of artificial intelligence, service robots also begin to enter the life of ordinary families.